matrix formation

lower case p - Chancery

The lowercase "p" is a combination of two strokes as shown, below.

first stroke second stroke Rounded letter forms cross their guidelines slightly. lowercase p

Chancery specifications Chancery script slant

4½ pen widths high. Try for a 45° pen angle and 10° slant to the letter when measured from vertical.

Chancery letter spacing

Space adjacent letters with parallel ascending lines the furthest apart. Don't measure! Do it all from sight and a few horizontal guidelines.

Consider the spacing on both sides of a lower case 'p'. The adjacent letters are both lower case 'd's. Notice in the example the two opposing curves between the right side of the 'p' and the bowl of the 'd' are spaced closely. On the left, the opposing lines are spaced farther apart. The 'p' between the two adjacent letters appears centered though it is not. Remember: space adjacent letters with opposing curves close together.

Chancery letter spacing

Two curves opposing one another on a line of letters have the least amount of space between them. A curve opposing a straight line has a little more. Two letters with straight lines have the most space between them. Look for well spaced letters with your eye. Don't measure! Calligraphy is an art form which visually adjusts negative spaces.


Fill a page of lined notebook paper with the lower case letter 'p', using letter height of two ruled lines on the paper with the bowl of the 'p' resting on the first line and the descender extending down to the second line.

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Copyright 2004, Charles McGavren